Laser correction of refractive defect

Dr. Marco Lombardo is internationally recognized as an expert in refractive laser surgery. He provides the best treatment option for your eyes. The most advanced instrumentation is used to offer you the best results of refractive laser surgery.

Refractive defects of the eye

The eye optics, such as the cornea and crystalline lens, can be schematized as focusing lenses of a common photo-camera; the retina may be represented as the camera film. The images of the external world are focused by these optics on the retina. Any deviation of the light path through the eye optics is called optical aberration.




In order for our eyes to be able to see, light rays must be refracted by the cornea and the lens so they can focus on the retina. The retina receives the picture of the external world and sends the image to the brain through the optic nerve.


Eye_schematic_MyopicMYOPIA (nearsightedness)

A myopic eye is longer than normal, so that the light rays focus in front of the retina. Close objects look clear, but distant objects appear blurred. The onset of myopia is in general between 8 and 12 years. During the teenage years, when the body grows rapidly, myopia may increase.


Eye_schematic_HyperopicHYPEROPIA (farsightedness)

A hyperopic eye is shorter than normal. Light from close objects, such as the page of a book cannot be focused clearly on the retina. Babies and young children tend to be slightly hyperopic. As the eye grows and becomes longer, hyperopia lessens.



A normal cornea is approximately spherical across its optical center. In the case of astigmatism, the cornea curves more along one direction than the other. Astigmatism distorts or blurs vision for both near and far objects. It’s almost like looking into a fun house mirror in which you appear too tall, too wide or too thin. It is possible to have astigmatism in combination with myopia or hyperopia.

Laser correction

Laser correction of the refractive defect, or laser refractive surgery, is the surgical procedure used to correct the refractive defects of the eye. There are different surgical techniques used to reshape the cornea, which include LASIK, PRK, LASEK and other less common procedures.

LASIK: short for LAser in-SItu Keratomileusis

This procedure is used to correct vision in people who are myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. During LASIK, vision is corrected by reshaping underlying corneal tissue so that it can properly focus light into the eye and onto the retina. This procedure differs from others in that a flap is made in the outer layer of the cornea so that the underlying tissue can be accessed. Currently, the LASIK flap is performed by using the femtosecond laser (i-LASIK or femto-LASIK).

PRK: short for PhotoRefractive Keratectomy

This procedure is used to correct mild to moderate myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. During PRK, an eye surgeon uses a laser to reshape the cornea. This laser, which delivers a cool pulsing beam of ultraviolet light, is used on the surface of the cornea not underneath the cornea, like in LASIK. Therefore, no cutting is required.

LASEK: short for LASer Epithelial Keratomileusis

This is a newer form of laser vision correction that combines many of the benefits of LASIK and PRK. However, unlike LASIK and PRK, there is no cutting or scraping of the eye, instead an epitheal flap is created using a 20% alcohol solution. It is used to treat myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

Best results

The results of laser corrective surgeries are excellent: no less than 98% of people treated for myopia (between -1 and -9 diopters), astigmatism (between 1 and 3 diopters) and hyperopia (between +1 and +3 diopters) are satisfied with their surgery. On the other hand, before surgery, it is important that you undergo to a preoperative full eye examination. Refractive surgery requires healthy eyes that are free from retinal problems, corneal scars, and any eye disease.

Laser correction of the refractive defect has minimal side effects; in most cases, they are also temporary and not disabling.

Make an appointment

book now